Paradigm of socio-economic development
Development model (interacting development paradigm) there are 4 models, namely:
a. Growth model
The model is oriented towards increasing GNP, with the budget that it can be achieved by industrializing and modeling big pushes with a moderation spirit, where per capita income and equity will be achieved automatically, as a result of “trickle down” ‘so that it is centrally government apparatus and public administration functions. The priorities of this model are growth rates, GNP, per capita, investment level, and growth. This model has a strong influence and Harrod -Dogmar’s theory and the growth rate of Rostow (Islam and henault, 1979).
Finally, in general some observers judge this model has failed, so that arise kepincngan, decreased competition of labor.
b. Model of government
With the following key features:
1. The social aspects of the environment and development that are devoted to the growth model are now an important aspect.
2. The need to be oriented to basic needs, independence of agricultural and rural development, for the eradication of unemployment and unevenness.
3. Other aspects that are considered are the provision of job opportunities and business opportunities, the eradication of hunger and malnutrition, health care, clean water in view as a better strateji for developing countries.
4. As a result of simultaneous efforts in the equitable distribution of development results that affect the independence and social justice, but the reality actually raises a lot of dependence on the government. This is what drives the birth of new thinking.
c. Human development model
With the main aspects as follows:
1. Emphasis on the implementation of responsible activities
2. Awareness-raising ability
3. build a human quality or community based management, and features:
– engage in decision making
– able to manage the existing resources
– the existence of social learning between bureaucracy and community
– political reforms that open participants
d. Model of increasing competitiveness
Globalization tinged with economic liberalization tends to lead to the loss of national borders, at least in the field of economy, the loss of barriers in free trade will increase the volume of trade between nations, which is marked by the emergence of WTO, AFTA, NAFTA, APEC and so on