the formulation of the problem


6 steps or steps that need to be done from the formulation of the problem until the formulation of policy recommendations. These steps include:
1. Problem assessment
This activity aims to find and understand the problems of a policy problem and then formulate it in causal relationships. The three essentials that need to be had in the study of this issue are theory, methodology, problem formulation and information.
2. Destination determination
Goals are consequences that you consciously want to achieve or want to avoid. In general, a policy always aims to achieve goodness. The more and better or prevent the occurrence of evil / loss. Objectives must be formulated clearly, realistically and regularly.
3. Alternative formulation
Several alternatives can be developed to achieve established goals. Alternative development is based on: a. observation of existing policies and then repaired gradually (incremental), b. doing a kind of annalogidari a policy in a field and tried to apply in the field being studied (branching), c. is the result of an assessment of a particular problem (inventive).
4. Model preparation
The model is a simplification of the reality of the problems encountered manifested in a causal or functional relationship. Models can be poured in various forms that can be classified as follows: schematic models (such as flowcharts or diagrams), physical models such as miniature, game models such as management training scenes. Models will be useful in predicting the consequences arising from the presence or absence of changes in objectives and development and the determination of alternative policy options.
5. Determination of criteria
Policy analysis requires clear and consistent criteria for assessing alternatives. This involves not only pragmatic issues such as economic (efficient and so on), politics (consensus among stakeholders, etc.), administrative (effective and so on) but also about fundamental abstract values ​​such as ethics and philosophy (equity, equality and so on).
6. An alternative assessment
The alternatives developed are then assessed on the basis of agreed criteria. The purpose of the alternative assessment is to get a further picture of the effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility of each alternative in the achievement of the objectives, so that conclusions can be obtained about which alternatives are most effective and efficient or feasible

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